Over-the-counter or off-the-exchange trading of bitcoins is a more flexible and convenient way of trading bitcoins comparing to traditional exchanges.
Introducing: BitX Bitcoin OTC Desk.
In 2013, Jean-Loup Richet, a research fellow atESSECISIS, surveyed new money laundering techniques that cybercriminals were using in a report written for theUnited Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.A common approach to cyber money laundering was to use a digital currency exchanger service which converted dollars intoLiberty Reserveand could be sent and received anonymously. The receiver could convert the Liberty Reserve currency back into cash for a small fee. In May 2013, digital currency exchanger Liberty Reserve was shut down after the alleged founder, Arthur Budovsky Belanchuk, and four others were arrested in Costa Rica, Spain, and New York under charges for conspiracy to commit money laundering and conspiracy and operation of an unlicensed money transmitting business.Budovsky, a former U.S. citizen and naturalized Costa Rican, was convicted in connection with the 2006 Gold Age raid.A U.S. indictment said the caseis believed to be the largest international money laundering prosecution in history.More than $40 million in assets were placed under restraint pending forfeiture, and more than 30 Liberty Reserve exchangerdomain nameswere seized.The company was estimated to have laundered $6 billion in criminal proceeds.
Following the launch of a decentralizedin 2008 and the subsequent introduction of other cryptocurrencies, many virtual platforms were created specifically for the exchange of decentralized cryptocurrencies. Their regulation differs from country to country.
OTC trading has kept growing since 2014 in various financial markets as more institutions taking the trades off the exchange.Today, many corporations or institutions employ individual traders or bitcoin-OTC trading desks to perform this task at moderate expenses.Some representatives bitcoin-OTC trading desks could be , itBit,Coinfloor, Octagon Strategy Limited,LocalBitcoins, Bitstamp,BitXetc.
In Japan to operate a cryptocurrency exchange a special license must be obtained from the Financial Services Authority of Japan specifically for the operation of a virtual currency exchange. In the Republic ofBelaruscryptocurrency exchanges may be licensed under the Presidential Decree No 8 of 22 December 2017 On the Development of Digital Economy. In theKyrgyz Republiccryptocurrencies are considered commoditiesand may be freely traded at any regulated commodities exchange. Several cryptocurrency exchanges operating in the European Union obtained licensesunder the EUPayment Services Directiveand theEU Electronic Money Directive. The adequacy of such licenses for the operation of a cryptocurrency exchange has not been judicially tested. The European Council and the European Parliament announced that they will issue regulations to impose stricter rules targeting exchange platforms.
Creators of digital currencies are often independent of the DCEs that trade the currency.In one type of system, digital currency providers (DCP), are businesses that keep and administer accounts for their customers, but generally do not issue digital currency to those customers directly.Customers buy or sell digital currency from DCEs, who transfer the digital currency into or out of the customers DCP account.Some DCEs are subsidiaries of DCP, but many are legally independent businesses.The denomination of funds kept in DCP accounts may be of a real or fictitious currency.
In 2006, US-based digital currency exchange businessGoldAge Inc., a New York state business, was shut down by the US Secret Service after operating since 2002.Business operators Arthur Budovsky and Vladimir Kats were indicted on charges of operating an illegal digital currency exchange and money transmittal business from their apartments, transmitting more than $30 million to digital currency accounts.Customers provided limited identity documentation, and could transfer funds to anyone worldwide, with fees sometimes exceeding $100,000.Budovsky and Kats were sentenced in 2007 to five years in prison for engaging in the business oftransmitting money without a license, a felony violation of state banking law, ultimately receiving sentences of five years probation.
DCEs may be brick-and-mortar businesses, exchanging traditional payment methods and digital currencies, or strictly online businesses, exchanging electronically transferred money and digital currencies.Most digital currency exchanges operate outside of Western countries,avoiding regulatory oversight and complicating prosecutions, but DCEs often handle Western fiat currencies, sometimes maintaining bank accounts in several countries to facilitate deposits in various national currencies.They may accept credit card payments, wire transfers, postal money orders,cryptocurrencyor other forms of payment in exchange for digital currencies.They can send cryptocurrency to your personalcryptocurrency wallet. Many can convert digital currency balances into anonymous prepaid cards which can be used to withdraw funds fromATMsworldwide.
The US Securities and Exchange Commission maintains that if a platform offers trading of digital assets that are securities and operates as an exchange, as defined by the federal securities laws, then the platform must register with the SEC as a national securities exchange or be exempt from registration.
In July 2008,Webmoneychanged its rules, affecting many exchanges. Since that time it became prohibited[by whom?]to exchangeWebmoneyto the most popular e-currencies like E-gold, Liberty Reserve and others.
Also in July 2008 E-golds three directors accepted a bargain with the prosecutors and plead guilty to one count of conspiracy to engage in money laundering and one count of the operation of an unlicensed money transmitting business.E-gold ceased operations in 2009.
are businesses that allow customers to tradecryptocurrenciesordigital currenciesfor other assets, such as conventionalfiat money, or different digital currencies.They can bemarket makersthat typically take thebid/ask spreadsas transaction commissions for their services or simply charge fees as a matching platform.
How Bitcoin Brokers Trade Millions Without an Exchange.
In 2004 threeAustralianbased digital currency exchange businesses voluntarily shut down following an investigation by the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC). The ASIC viewed the services offered as legally requiring an Australian Financial Services License, which the companies lacked.
Bitcoin firm bags first electronic money licence in the UK.